begins with the obvious fact that every human being exists, not as a result of an individualistic, self-generating process, but as a result of a collectivist activity involving two human beings who were born at
a prior time to their offspring. Therefore as much as we like to think in terms of individualism, nature has dictated that we all exist within a biologically collectivist society. However, once the biological
birth has taken place, each individual begins an intellectual journey where thoughts and ideas occur within individual minds. There exists a jarring interconnectivity between biological collectivism and
individual intellectualism. The academic articles reproduced here represent that process in action, as observed and duly noted by the authors.